With the advent of Unicode, legacy character encodings have mostly lost their raison d’être, but they are still in widespread use and are clearly not going to disappear any time soon.
This site now provides PDF charts for a number of 8-bit encodings, as well as tests and information on browser support and links to more official and authoritative sources. The character sets are grouped as follows:
|ISO 8859||Japanese||ISO 646 (7-bit)|
|Windows||Traditional Chinese||Miscellaneous 8-bit|
|Macintosh||Simplified Chinese||Brahmic (Indian)|
There is a WHATWG Wiki page devoted to encoding support in browsers with a focus on labels (MIME charsets), whereas this page is more about the encoding vectors used to map from bytes (octets) to Unicode characters.
Those who would like the Unicode 6.0 Specification on paper might find this page useful.